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Free acidity: commercial yardstick, it derives from the hydrolysis of glycerides and is expressed grams of oleic acid per 100 grams of oil.

Wastewaters: it represent the liquid by-product of the milling and consist of : saline water of the drupe, the water added to facilitate the extraction of oil in a continuous cycle mills and from water used for the cleaning of the installations. Although it doesn’t contain any toxic or pathogenic micro-organisms, is considered pollutant. The law 574/96 authorizes and regulates its distribution in agricultural land.

Fruit set: this is aphenological stage that follows pollination which involves the passage from the stage of the flower to that of the fruit.

Allelopathy: phenomenon by which substances produced by a tree can inhibit the development of another tree.

Switching production: phenomenon by which the olive plant, but also of other fruit plants, presents a vintage abundant production followed by a low production.

Vegetative apex: terminal portion of a bough or a sprout.

Root asphyxia: state of suffering of the root caused by the impossibility to exchange air with the outside environment.

Rizogena attitude: capacity that different parts of a plant have to emit roots once they have been separated from the mother plant.

Self-incompatibility: when the pollen of flowers on the same plant can’t germinate in time for the insemination.

Self-rooted: tree obtained using a portion of another tree capable of giving rise to another tree. In olive tree, we refer to propagation by cuttings

Auxin: growth hormone that acts on cell expansion and stimulates the production of roots in cuttings.

Branch: woody branching of two or more years. Are called primary those included on the trunk, secondary ones included on the primary and tertiary those included on the secondary.

Supernumerary Branchetta: is a young branch in excess of what is required.

Change: meristematic tissue plant, located between book and wood, whose activity allows the increase in thickness of the trunk and roots.

Germination: percentage of germinated seeds at the end of a germination test

Fruit drop: detachment of the drupes for natural or parasitic causes.

Caule: the trunk of the tree, it is said monocaule when it has a single trunk and policaule if from the same stump go up several trunks.

Stump: is synonymous of pedal, the enlarged lower part of the trunk of plants characterized by a high pollonifera attitude.

Cytokinin: plant hormone that stimulate cell division in the culture of some tissues. It stimulates the growth of the cotyledons of many species.

Citotropicità: properties of some pesticides to penetrate few millimeters into the tissues, without entering into the lymphatic circulation of the treated plants.

Chlorosis: dysfunction of the plants, at the level of chlorophyll, for which the leaves turn yellow or become discolored.

Collar: part of the plant that connects stem and roots.

Main components: term that indicates the saponifiable fraction, that is the mixture of triglycerides, which are the most represented chemical compounds in olive oil.

Subcomponents: the unsaponifiable fraction of olive oil (2%) including polyphenols, pigments, sterols, aliphatic and triterpene alcohols, tocopherols, metals, hydrocarbons etc.

Acid composition of glycerides : fatty acids, representing over 90% of all fatty acids of olive oil; among these the most important are the oleic, linoleic and palmitic.

Contact: properties of some pesticides. Allows it to hit a body outwardly.

Continuous: modern system of extraction of oil from olives without interruption from the washing of olives until the separation of the oil from the vegetable water. This is in contrast to the traditional system in which the operations are stopped for loading presses.

Spectrophotometric constant: physical parameter that allows the evaluation of the degree of oil oxidation.

Chrysalis: developmental stage of butterflies, which takes place during the metamorphosis between larva and adult stages.

Cultivar: taxonomic entity consisting of cultivated plants distinguished by morphological or biological origins and maintained only in cultivation.

Cuticle: waxy substance that covers the outer surface of plant tissues by carrying out a protective function.

Leaching: phenomenon by which water, both rain and irrigation, that leach into the soil removes nutrients.

Massal distribution: release of a large number of antagonists of harmful species for a biological control.

Endogenous dormancy: stage in which the seeds do not germinate although still in a viable stage and in favorable conditions for germination. It is also said of gems.

Drupa: fleshy indehiscent fruit with membranous epicarp, endocarp that lignifies and fleshy mesocarp: olives.

Embryo: sketch of the plant in the seed and from the evolution of the egg cell after fertilization.

Endocarp: the inner part of the fruit.

Endophagous: organism that feeds into the body of its host.

Endosperm: parenchyma tissue of the seed in which there is reserve material.

Erosion: loss of land due to weather.

Exoskeleton: integument which is, as a shell, above insect body.

Groundwater: water that is located below the surface of the soil at a pressure equal to the atmospheric.

Phenological stage: stage of the annual biological cycle of a plant (such as flowering, fruit set).

Pheromones: substances secreted by the exocrine glands of insects, are divided into aggregation, dispersion and sexual pheromones. Widespread in the environment are used to transmit chemical messages between individuals of the same species.

Feromonici: devices that use, in some way, pheromones as a sexual attractant.

Fertility: is the set of physical, chemical and biological properties that make the soil a good substrate for the production of agricultural crops.

Fertilizers: are formulated used to maintain and improve soil fertility. Among those used fertilizers, which affect more quickly on the mineral nutrition of plants acting on the chemical properties of the soil, and soil which act to improve the nutritional preparation of the soil by changing the physical and biological endowment of soil organic matter.

Pest: animal organism that feeds plants.

Pesticides: a substance whose active ingredient has lethal effect on one or more pathogens.

Phytoregulator: is an organic compound produced naturally in higher plants that regulates the growth and other physiological functions. Thus, any substance used in agriculture that has an effect on growth or development of a plant.

Juveniles: stage of development before adulthood.

Photosynthesis: biochemical process that allows the conversion of light energy into chemical energy. It allows the synthesis of organic substances starting from simple inorganic compounds (CO2, H2O, mineral elements).

Unsaponifiable: substances (terpenes, sterols, hydrocarbons etc) that despite being soluble in the usual solvents for oils and fats after the saponification of fat, not volatilize at 100 °.

Gemma: the structure that contains the outline of the new parts of the plant that will develop into buds or flowers.

Generation: in entomology is equivalent to the concept of life cycle. If an insect carries a one year life cycle, it is said that it accomplishes a single generation.

Genotype: the set of hereditary characteristics of an individual.

Germination: passage of sperm from the state of latent life to the state of the active life, resulting in the development of the embryo.

Germination: phase of the growth cycle in which a perennial plant producing new shoots after winter.

Bud: branching herb that grows by a bud wood or mixed.

Enzymatic hydrolysis: hydrolysis reaction (cleavage of a compound in water) accelerated by particular enzymes: hydrolases which are amylase and maltase.

Scaffolding: insertion area of the branches on the trunk.

Pupation: the process of transformation of the larva in pupa.

Ingestion: properties of some pesticides to act in the body after ingestion.

Engage: seedlings that result from coupling.

Grafting gem: grafting in which the object is made from a single bud and a portion of the cortex and, sometimes, also of wood.

Grafting scion: grafting in which the object is constituted by a portion of the branch provided with one or more gems.

Ripening: phase of the development cycle of the fruit of the olive tree in which the skin color changes from green to red or purple (depending on the variety).

Hypocotyl: the stem, which is derived from the development of the embryo during the germination process.

Larva: post-embryonic stage of development of the insect that, when it slips from the egg, it has a totally different shape from the adult.

Layering: part of a branch that form adventitious roots before being separated from the parent plant.

Scion: part of a branch removed from the parent plant that is intended to provide the gems to run the plug-in.

Honeydew: sugar secretion of parasitic or physiological origin.

Mesophyll: part of the leaf located between the upper and lower epidermis, consists of palisade and spongy parenchyma.

Mycelium: hyphae capable of performing vital functions for fungus life.

Trace elements: essential chemical elements for plants.

Microflora: combinations of plant micro-organisms in the soil.

Micropyle: small opening that is found in the chorion of the egg (for one of its poles) having the function to allow the passage of the sperm; it has different forms depending on the species; in some of these will also have more micropili of same egg.

Mignola: olive inflorescenze.

Multiplication: by vegetative propagation (grafting, cuttings, layering).

Muta: process by which the juvenile form of the insect, gets rid of the old cuticle that is separated from the epidermis to form a wider cuticle.

Neanide: post-embryonic stage of development of an insect that, slipping from the egg, it has adult’s similar form.

Nesto: part of a plant used as epibionte during propagation by grafting.

Peroxide number: index of the state of oxidation, caused by enzymatic and chemical reactions. The peroxides are compounds containing two oxygen atoms which are linked by simple covalent bond -OO-.

Lay: spawning operation.

Ovipositor: complex parts: the external genitalia of the female, which allows spawning in the host organism.

Distal end: that is far from the central part of the body.

Parthenogenesis: a form of sexual reproduction in which, while not intervening element male germ, the egg develops equally to generate a new individual.

Pedal: synonymous of stump; the enlarged lower part of the trunk of the plants that are characterized by high attitude pollonifera.

Soil: it refers to agricultural land.

Peduncle: support element of an organ.

PH: (logarithm of the hydrogen ion concentration); a parameter that indicates the degree of acidity or basicity of a substance by referring to the concentration of hydrogen ions expressed in moles per liter. Neutral pH 7,> 7 basic (or alkaline), <7 acidic.

Pollinating plant: plant that produces pollen fertilizing with strong attitude toward a particular cultivar.

Mother plant: plant that provides propagation material.

Seedlings: plant during the emergency phase, which indicates the stage following the germination.

Plumule: stalk that comes from the development of the embryo during the process of germination and located above cotiledonari leale.

Polyphagous: species that lives tanks to the existence of different plants.

Sucker: branch that is located below the collar of a plant, or from the pedal or a root.

Grafting: a synonym of subject; the plant used as ipobionte in propagation by grafting.

Preimmaginale: juvenile stage of development.

Active ingredient: chemical compound that is present in the formulation of pesticides, it is effective against target organisms.

Integrated production: production resulting from a rational and proper conduct of the olive, which is minimized by the use of chemicals acting fertilizer, herbicide or pesticide and where soil fertility and pest control is conducted using agronomic practices.

Propagation: generic term for both reproduction and propagation of plants. Act in which the plant is perpetuated in space and time.

Propaggine: type of layering obtained by bending arc a branch so interrarne the median part, in correspondence of which will form adventitious roots, while leaving out of the ground the terminal part.

Pupa: quiescent and afago stage of insect, in which are more or less obvious characters of adult.

Pupa: leathery structure containing the pupa.

Rooting: all methods of propagating the exception of the graft; multiplication obtained using a portion of the plant (root, branch, leaf, etc.),that, can give a whole new plant.

Branches conidiophores: fertile hyphae that producing conidia.

Growth regulator: a synonym for plant growth regulator; organic compound naturally produced in higher plants that regulates the growth and other physiological functions. Thus, any substance used in agriculture that has an effect on growth or development of a plant.

Residual: a herbicide whose active ingredient has the ability to be present in the treated soil for a long time (7-8 months) by preventing the development of seeds and young plants that can it absorbed thanks to the roots.

Ripper: organ of the operating machine consists of long teeth with chisel end; is used for the first "break" of tenacious or stony soils.

Reproduction: propagation by seed obtained following a normal insemination process.

Capillary: phenomenon whereby the water contained in the ground, rises on the surface, through the interstices of the soil, where it evaporates.

Ammonium salts: ammonium compounds (usually ammonium carbonate) used as attractants substances.

Virgin sansa: solid byproduct by extraction of oil, consists of residues of pulp, pit fragments and small fractions of oil.

Saprofitarie: species that feed of decaying organic matter.

Scarification: injury caused in the integument of the seeds to promote germination.

Burglary: deep soil tillage (1 meter or more).

Shield: protective structure that covers the body of diaspini.

Selectivity: properties of an insecticide to be effective only on a specific species.

Plant Nursery: field-grown for seed production.

Seedling: plant derived from seed.

Planting: array of plants on land.

Flicker: Output of the adult bug after being released from the exuvia.

Systemic: A pesticide whose active ingredient penetrates into the tissues of the plant spreading to all parts through the lymphatic system.

Subject: synonym of rootstock; plant used which ipobionte during propagation by grafting.

Threshold: sents the population density of phytophagous. It is expressed as a percentage of sample units infested.

Volatile substances: liquid substances capable of passing at the gaseous state at room temperature. These substances give the oil its characteristic fragrance.

Green manure: agronomic practice that consists in the cultivation of herbaceous species which, after reaching the maximum vegetative growth, are buried to make organic matter to the soil.

Squadro: arrangement of the flat on the ground so as to obtain a shape with right angles.

Square Surveyor: surveying tool that allows you to track alignment at right angles.

Phenological stage: stage of development resulting in the relationships between climatic factors and periodic phenomena that characterize the life cycle of animals and plants.

Juveniles: term used to define specific physiological and morphological characteristics that distinguish plants raised from seed in the first stage of their development.

Fatigue: particular state of suffering that show many species of fruit tree species after transplantation.

Stomata: small openings on leaves that allow gas exchange with the environment.

Stratification: technique consisting in mixing seeds with moist material and in keeping them in appropriate temperature conditions in order to keep them viable and / or to stimulate the vegetation.

Slating: technique that provides the intervention of cutting the level of the stump, in order to renew the old plants or to rebuild a plant damaged by frost.

Soil structure: is given by the aggregation and the spatial arrangement of the elementary particles that compose the soil.

Epicormic shoot: branch derived from an adventitious or dormant bud on the trunk or on the branches.

Tachometer: tool to measure angles and distances.

Cutting: portion of organs tree removed by a tree and used in the direct rooting multiplication.

Cultivation techniques: is the set of operations on a crop in order to encourage quantitatively and qualitatively an high and constant production.

Integument: protective covering of the seed

Time of deficiency: also called safety interval; it indicates the number of days that must elapse between the last treatment (with pesticides) and the collection.

Transplantation: to change plant’s home.

Tutor: a post where we tie young plants after transplanting.

Zoospores: typical spores of ficomiceti able to move in the liquid due to eyelashes vibrating.